Easton Xl1

History
Early in the 20th century, it was common to have shared glasses or dippers at water sources such as school faucets or water barrels in trains. This shared use caused public health concerns. One notable investigation into their use was Lafayette College biology professor Alvin Davison's study, published with the sensational title "Death in School Drinking Cups" in Technical World Magazine in August 1908, based on research carried out in Easton, Pennsylvania's public schools. The article was reprinted and distributed by the Massachusetts State Board of Health in November 1909.
Based on these concerns, and as paper goods (especially after the 1908 invention of the Dixie Cup) became cheaply and cleanly available, local bans were passed on the shared-use cup. One of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the Lackawanna, which began using them in 1909. By 1917, the public glass had disappeared from railway carriages, replaced by paper cups even in jurisdictions where public glasses had yet to be banned.
Paper cups are also employed in hospitals for health reasons. As reported by France, in 1942 the Massachusetts State College found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was 1.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups. These studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, encouraged the use of paper cups in hospitals.
Dixie cups
Dixie Cup is the brand name for a line of disposable paper cups that were first developed in the United States in the early 20th century. While they were undoubtedly novel and profitable, they were also seen as a way to improve public hygiene.
They were introduced in 1907 by Lawrence Luellen, a lawyer in Boston, Massachusetts, who was concerned about germs being spread by people sharing glasses or dippers at public supplies of drinking water. Luellen developed an ice-cooled water-vending machine with disposable cups, and with another Bostonian, Hugh Moore, embarked on a campaign to educate the public and to market his machine, principally to railroad companies. Professor Davison's study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for a cent, became standard equipment on trains.
The Dixie Cup was first called "Health Kup", but from 1919 it was named after a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindler's Dixie Doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to call itself the Dixie Cup Corporation and move to Easton, Pennsylvania.
Dixie merged with the American Can Company in 1957. The James River Corporation purchased American Can's paper business in 1982. The assets of James River are now part of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, the second largest privately owned company in the United States.
The Dixie Cup logo was created in 1969 by Saul Bass, a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences.
Waterproofing
Originally, paper cups for hot drinks were glued together and made waterproof by dropping a small amount of clay in the bottom of the cup, and then spinning at high speed so that clay would travel up the walls of the cup, making the paper water-resistant. However, this resulted in drinks smelling and tasting of cardboard.
Cups for cold drinks could not be treated in the same way, as condensation forms on the outside, then soaks into the board, making the cup unstable. To remedy this, cup manufacturers developed the technique of spraying both the inside and outside of the cup with wax. Both clay-coated and wax-coated cups disappeared with the invention of polyethylene (PE) coated cups; this process covers the surface of the board with a very thin layer of PE, not only waterproofing the board, but also allowing seams to be welded together. These water resistant PE coating also make the paper cup almost impossible to recycle.
Environmental impact
Most paper cups are designed for a single use and then disposal or recycling. A life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no clear winner.
A study of one paper coffee cup with sleeve (16 ounce) shows that the CO2 emissions is about .11 kilograms (.25 pounds) per cup with sleeve - including paper from trees, materials, production and shipping. The loss of natural habitat potential from the paper coffee cup (16 ounce) with a sleeve is estimated to be .09 square meters (.93 square feet).
Over 6.5 million trees were cut down to make 16 billion paper cups used by US consumers in 2006, using 4 billion gallons of water and resulting in 253 million pounds of waste.
Very little recycled paper is used to make paper cups because of contamination concerns and regulations. Because most paper cups are coated with plastic, both composting and recycling of paper cups is uncommon.
Although paper cups are made from renewable resources (wood chips 95% by weight), paper products in a landfill may not decompose, or may release methane if decomposed anaerobically. The manufacture of paper usually requires inorganic chemicals and creates water effluents.
Paper cups may consume more non-renewable resources than cups made of polystyrene foam (whose only significant effluent is pentane). A number of citiesncluding Portland, Oregon -- have banned XPS foam cups in take-out and fast food restaurants.
PE is a petroleum based coating on paper cups that can slow down the process of biodegrading. PLA is a biodegradable bio-plastic coating used on some paper cups. PLA is a renewable resource and makes paper cups more compostable, whereas PE is not renewable and is not compostable.
Lids
Paper cups may have various types of lids. The paper cups that are used as containers for yogurt, for example, generally have two types of lids: a press-on, resealable, lid (used for large "family size" containers, 250 ml to 1000 ml, where not all of the yogurt may be consumed at any one time and thus the ability to re-close the container is required) and heat-seal foil lids (used for small "single serving" containers, 150 ml to 200 ml).
Paper cup lids may be used when one wants to be careful not to spill, for instance when it is filled with a hot beverage.
See also: sippy cup
The most common types of paper cup lids are straw slot lids for cold drinks, with a perforated cross in the middle of the lid allowing a straw to be inserted. A second type is the hot drink lid; originally just vented to allow steam to escape, this has mainly been superseded by the sip-through lid. Having a tight-fitting lid is essential to making the hot drink safe. Most lids are made from polystyrene. Paper lids are available for soup containers, but due to their construction they are relatively expensive and so are only seen at the premium end of the market.
In popular culture
In the United States Navy, the enlisted sailor's white cap is sometimes called a "Dixie Cup" due to its shape and colour.
The song Ashes to Ashes has several references to the impact of modernity and the decline of what is the past. One of them is "...like pouring brandy in a Dixie Cup." (Brandy is properly served in a snifter). Original singer of the song is its composer Dennis Lambert. Also sung by The 5th Dimension. (Note: Not to be confused with the David Bowie tune of the same name)
Paper Cup, a song by The 5th Dimension on The Magic Garden
Dirty Paper Cup, a studio album by Hafds Huld
Champagne from a Paper Cup, a song by Death Cab for Cutie on You Can Play These Songs with Chords
At the New Talents 2008 Biennale in Cologne from 16-24 August 2008, Roger Design Magazine presented an exhibit of 100 Cups, drawing attention to the variety of disposable cups in use and their role as fashion accessories.
See also
Cup holder
Plastic cup
References
Notes
^ "Waxed Paper Food Containers & Lids". Solocup.com. http://www.solocup.com/catalog/pdfs/GS1030%20WaxPprFdCnt1-10-07%20(2).pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
^ Kennedy, Garry: Apollo Glossary, Retrieved on June 9, 2007
^ "Paper Products & Dispensers >>Cup Dispensers". Toiletpaperworld.com. http://www.toiletpaperworld.com/tpw/product.asp?strSku=SCC+P510J&bShowSkuGroup=true. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
^ Raloff, Janet (2006-02-11). "Wind Makes Food Retailers Greener". Science News. http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20060211/food.asp. 
^ a b "Dixie Cup Company History". Lafayette College Libraries. August 1995. http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~library/special/dixie/company.html. 
^ John H. White (1985). The American railroad passenger car. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 432. ISBN 0801827434. 
^ Beulah France (February 1942). "Uses for Paper Cups and Containers". The American Journal of Nursing 42 (2): 154156. doi:10.2307/3416163. 
^ Hocking, M. B. (1 February), "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice", Science 251 (4993): 504 
^ "Report of the Alliance for Environmental Innovation". edf.com. http://www.edf.org/documents/523_starbucks.pdf. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
^ "ecological effects of a paper cup". ecofx.org. http://ecofx.org/wiki/index.php?title=Paper_cup. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
^ a b "Paper Cups = Unsustainable Consumption". aboutmyplanet.com. http://www.aboutmyplanet.com/environment/paper-unsustainable/. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
^ Don R. Hansen and Maryanne M. Mowen (2005). Management Accounting: The Cornerstone of Business Decisions. Thomson South-Western. p. 503. ISBN 0324234848. 
^ Chris T. Hendrickson, Lester B. Lave, and H. Scott Matthews (2006). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-output Approach. Resources for the Future. p. 5. ISBN 1933115238. 
^ M. William Helfrich & Justin Wescoat Sanders (2003-08-13). "The Coming Cup-tastrophe". The Portland Mercury. http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/Content?oid=29552&category=34029. 
^ Adman Y. Tamime and Richard K. Robinson (1999). Yoghurt: science and technology. Woodhead Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 1855733994. 
^ Exhibition 100 CUPS at New Talents 2008 Biennale
Bibliography
Maying Soong (2002). Chinese Paper Folding for Beginners. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 67. ISBN 0486418065.  how to make a paper cup out of a square of paper using origami
A mathematically annotated folding instruction for paper cups
Martin B. Hocking (November 1991). "Relative merits of polystyrene foam and paper in hot drink cups: Implications for packaging". Environmental Management (Springer New York) 15 (6): 731747. doi:10.1007/BF02394812. http://www.springerlink.com/content/b55256333584v60n/. 
Martin B. Hocking (November 1994). "Reusable and disposable cups: An energy-based evaluation". Environmental Management (Springer New York) 18 (6): 889899. doi:10.1007/BF02393618. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c275588280002wp8/. 
Allyn Freeman and Bob Golden (1997). "Little Dipper". Why Didn't I Think of That? : Bizarre Origins of Ingenious Inventions We Couldn't Live Without. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 183184. ISBN 0471165115.  the Dixie Cup
Categories: Containers | Drinkware

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